Inapoi la Engleza

Past perfect and continuous - Trecutul perfect si continuu

1. Trecutul perfect

Trecutul perfect (Past perfect), exprima o actiune care a avut loc si s-a terminat in trecut, inaintea altei actiuni tot din trecut.
Acesta se formeaza cu had + participiu trecut al verbului.
- Este un timp utilizat mai des în limba engleza decât în limba româna pentru exprimarea anterioritatii.
Exemple:
He had lived in London before he moved to Romania. - El locuise in Londra inainte de a se muta in Romania.
You had finished the book before I came. - Tu terminasesi cartea înainte sa vin eu.
Mother had cooked the dinner by the time father arrived home. - Mama gatise deja cina când a ajuns tata acasa.
Forma negativa se formeaza cu had not (sau hadn't) si participiul trecut al verbului.
He hadn't lived in Paris before he moved to Romania. - El nu locuise in Paris inainte de a se muta in Romania.
He had not finished the book before I came. - El nu terminase cartea înainte sa vin eu.
Forma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul had si subiect.
How long had it been since you saw each other? - Cat timp fusese de cand v-ati vazut?
Exista cateva conjunctii si adverbe ce se folosesc adesea in trecutul perfect pentru a marca succesiunea evenimentelor (actiunilor). Acestea sunt:
by the time that (in (din) momentul în care), when (cand), after (dupa), as soon as (de indata ce), ever (vreodata), never (niciodata), just (tocmai), before (inainte), already (deja), for [time period] (timp de [o perioada de timp]), since [point of time] (incepand cu /de la [un punct in timp]), never ... before (niciodata ... înainte sa).
Exemple:
When I arrived Susan had already left. - Cand am sosit Susan plecase deja.
He had just come into the room when the telephone rang. - El tocmai intrase in camera cand a sunat telefonul.

Conjugare
I had walked - Eu ma plimbasem
you had walked - Tu te plimbasesi
He had walked - El se plimbase
she had walked - Ea se plimbase
it had walked - Se plimbase
we had walked - Noi ne plimbasem
you had walked - Voi va plimbasesi
they had walked - Ei se plimbase

2. Trecutul perfect continuu

Trecutul perfect continuu (Past perfect continuous /progressive) se foloseste pentru a accentua faptul ca o actiune a fost in curs de desfasurare pe o anumita perioada de timp inaintea altei actiuni din trecut.
Trecutul perfect continuu se formeaza cu: Had + been + participiu prezent (-ing).
Exemple:
I had been waiting for my friend since seven o'clock when he finally arrived. - Îl asteptam pe prietenul meu de la ora sapte, când în sfârsit a sosit.
He had been writing poems for two years when I met him. - Scria poezii de doi ani când l-am cunoscut.
Forma negativa - se adauga not intre auxiliarul had si been.
It had not been raining when you came. - Nu ploua cand ai venit.
Forma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului had cu subiectul.
Had you been swiming before she left the piscine? - Inotai inainte sa plece ea de la piscina

Conjugare
I had been walking - Eu ma plimbam
you had been walking - Tu te plimbai
He had been walking - El se plimba
she had been walking - Ea se plimba
it had been walking - Se plimba
we had been walking - Noi ne plimbam
you had been walking - Voi va plimbati
they had been walking - Ei se plimbau
Exemplu:
They had been playing tennis when you wrote your homework. - Ei se jucau tenis cand tu ti-ai scris tema.

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